Ingredient Substitutions

Allspice Amount: 1 teaspoon
½ teaspoon cinnamon plus ½ teaspoon ground cloves
Apple Pie Spice Amount: 1 teaspoon
½ teaspoon cinnamon plus ¼ teaspoon nutmeg plus 1/8 teaspoon cardamom
Baking Powder, Double-Acting Amount: 1 teaspoon
¼ teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
Baking Soda There is NO substitute for baking soda
Butter Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: – 1 cup regular margarine – 1 cup vegetable shortening (for baking) – An equal amount of oil can be substituted for a similar portion of MELTED butter if the recipe specifies using MELTED butter.
Buttermilk Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough regular milk to make 1 cup (allow to stand 5 minutes)
Chili Sauce Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup tomato sauce, ¼ cup brown sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar, ¼ teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground cloves and dash of allspice
Chocolate, Unsweetened Amount: 1 ounce
Substitute: 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or regular margarine or vegetable oil
Cornstarch (for thickening) Amount: 1 tablespoon
Substitute: 2 tablespoons flour TIP: Liquids thickened with cornstarch will be somewhat translucent while flour gives a more opaque appearance. Cornstarch will thicken a liquid almost immediately. A flour-based sauce or gravy must be cooked longer to thicken and will have a floury taste if undercooked.
Cream, Whipping Amount: 1 cup unwhipped
If you wish to use a commercial pre-whipped whipped cream or whipped cream substitute rather than whip your own cream, use the guideline that 1 cup UNWHIPPED whipping cream expands to 2 cups when WHIPPED. For example, if your recipe called for 1 cup of cream to make whipped cream, you could substitute 2 cups of an already whipped product.
Egg Amount: 1 whole egg
– ¼ cup egg substitute (examples include: Egg Beaters, Second Nature, Scramblers); check label for specific directions – Reconstituted powdered eggs; follow package directions – 2 tablespoons mayonnaise (suitable for use in cake batter).
Flour, All-Purpose White Flour Amount: 1 cup
½ cup whole wheat flour plus ½ cup all-purpose flour. 
Flour, Cake Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
Flour, Self-Rising Amount: 1 cup
1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose flour plus 1 ½ teaspoons baking powder and ½ teaspoon salt
Garlic Amount: 1 small clove
1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
Herbs, Fresh Amount: 1 tablespoon, finely cut
– 1 teaspoon dried leaf herbs – ½ teaspoon ground dried herbs
Lemon Zest (fresh grated lemon peel) Amount: 1 teaspoon
½ teaspoon lemon extract
Marshmallows, Miniature Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 10 large marshmallows
Mayonnaise (for use in salads and salad dressings) Amount: 1 cup
– 1 cup sour cream – 1 cup yogurt – 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender – Or use any of the above for part of the mayonnaise
Mustard, Dry (in cooked mixtures) Amount: 1 teaspoon
1 tablespoon prepared mustard
Onion Amount: 1 small or ¼ cup chopped, fresh onion
Substitute: 1 tablespoon instant minced onion
Pumpkin Pie Spice Amount: 1 teaspoon
½ teaspoon cinnamon plus ¼ ground teaspoon ginger plus 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice plus 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg
Rice Amount: Any amount
Most rice products will substitute for each other on a fairly equal basis in recipes; however, their cooking times and the amount of liquid needed may vary. If possible, choose a rice with a comparable grain length for the closest match.
Rum Amount: any amount
1 part rum extract plus 3 parts water. For example: for ¼ cup rum, substitute 1 tablespoon rum extract plus 3 tablespoons water.
Sugar, Confectioners’ or Powdered Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch; process in a food processor using the metal blade attachment until it’s well blended and powdery.
Tomato Juice Amount: 1 cup
½ cup tomato sauce plus ½ cup water
Tomato Soup Amount: 10 3/4 ounce can
1 cup tomato sauce plus ¼ cup water
Wine, Red Amount: Any
The same amount of grape juice or cranberry juice
Wine, White Amount: Any
The same amount of apple juice or white grape juice
Yeast, Compressed Amount: 1 cake (3/5 ounce)
– 1 package (¼ ounce) active dry yeast – Scant 2 ½ teaspoons loose active dry yeast
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